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[top] autumn pest multiple plant protection, seize the key to early prevention and control
Source:iotachem.com
PostTime:2016-09-03 18:25:03

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pest prone, seize the key early prevention and treatment of

in autumn is a pest high season, autumn temperatures, pests is the peak of two is open crop; hidden in the outside world, insects have become shed migration, indoor "casual visitor". Therefore, to understand the biological characteristics of insect pests, develop early prevention. The comprehensive prevention habits from agriculture. With a variety of biological and chemical physics. Control measures such as reducing pest population, ensuring the safe vegetable production has become a pressing matter of the moment..


B. reach, farmers should be optimistic about the air


recently, because the open-air crops into the harvest period, survival began looking for new living places in a large number of the greenhouse whitefly, this time a lot of vent mouth open, insect nets and other protective measures are not installed, whitefly pests such as will find a new living environment greenhouse whitefly pests increase since.


to guard whitefly harm, it is necessary to understand its living habits. Whitefly host widely. Senerative. Fecundity. Covered with wax powder, so the prevention and cure of whitefly has been difficult to solve the problem of greenhouse vegetable whitefly infestation is not only reflected in the.


directFeeding, can also cause mildew. The spread of the virus disease, causing more damage.


tabaci trends tender, multiple spawning in plants at the top leaves, that is to say, the leaf back and lateral at the whitefly unhatched eggs are mainly concentrated in the plant above the middle level, and below the middle of the most old leaves have been hatched only, the chorion, farmers should have in the medication when focusing on.


in order to adjust the temperature. Humidity, avoid harmful gas accumulation in exercise is indispensable, especially in the spring. Summer. Autumn season of high temperature, the air was very large, yet the spread of pests. In order to prevent the diffusion of the peak. The pest into greenhouses, farmers in the air as soon as possible suggestions for preventing net.


net mesh should be depending on the circumstances? too close to ventilation cooling, too thinning is not easy to enter the insect, pest control effect. In general, with 60 white insect nets is appropriate, must set up tight without gaps, but also to minimize the net during exposing, so as not to fly into the adult, and timely check the damage situation of films and promptly repair, not to handle.


thrips pests rampant, according to the habits of clever use of



dry autumn weather, many greenhouse thrips species occur, often occurs with tobacco thrips. Melon thrips and western flower thrips, thrips living habits of these.


is roughly the same joy thrips arid environment, about 25 DEG C. the relative humidity below 60% when the favorable, active adults. Good flying, and photophobia, during the dayIn the first Bang Dong Chen Liao Yu Nao greedy t? Cloudy. Morning. The evening and night before the host surface activity, which brings great difficulty to thrips thrips.


Paguang, with nocturnal habits. With the increase of light intensity, the harm on the leaves and flowers to thrips will hide or soil cracks, no longer continue to harm farmers according to the vegetable.


activity of thrips, first of all through the spraying ground, which not only reduced the use of vegetables on the quantity, can also be lurking in the soil of the thistle horse kill; second is to adjust the medication time, close to the evening, thrips from burrow through, climb to the plants continue to damage, it should be sprayed on plant in the evening, killing.


in feeding thrips thrips

so, drug prevention and treatment to the thrips plants sprayed evenly, and then sprayed on the ground, reducing the number of thrips climbed to the plant, achieve the purpose of prevention and treatment. And according to the characteristics of farmers love sweets thrips in insecticide, add sugar, to enhance the effect of.


on chemical control of mites,



in recent years. Start weeding, mites in hot pepper. Gourd and other vegetables eggplant. The damage is very serious, once the improper control may be a large outbreak of.


in greenhouse vegetable pest mites are mainly yellow tea mite. Two. Spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus, mite species, living habits also have certain difference.


yellow tea miteIn early spring, warm and humid winter vegetables, eggplant with chili. The most serious, the most suitable growth temperature of 22-28. The relative humidity is 80%-90%, high temperature had inhibition effect on the growth of mites; and two spotted spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus. Such love environment relatively dry, temperature the scope and the appropriate activity to be higher, high temperature and humidity for the first step, so frequent outbreaks of mite damage prevention and treatment of.


in summer and autumn, is to eradicate weeds. The removal of deadwood rotten leaves, cut off the source of infection. Weeds. The dead leaves are the favorable places for overwintering pests, now as the temperature decreases, corn. Peanut. Cotton and other crops being harvested, these pests will quickly turn to greenhouse damage.


so, before a certainAt include Xian Na Jian instrument and fishy? Will shed before and after shed shed weed clean and spray abamectin. Spirodiclofen. Etoxazole chemicals, shed around killing mites, prevent the spread of the shed, shed.


especially the pest control agent, choose


except for alternative control methods described above, pest control agent is an indispensable step, we have advocated the use of insecticidal and eggs killed. Here are several fungicides to control the above several.


currently chemical control pest whitefly, nitenpyram. Imidaclothiz of whiteflies was killing effect, spirotetramat and hydrochlorothiazide in the insect whitefly ovicidal effect of.


is better for thrips, canFrom the turn tip = free? Nitenpyram thiamethoxam and medicament such as.


acaricides ovicidal effect mainly has 24% spirodiclofen and 11% etoxazole, kill the mite have better effect. Avermectin propargite pyridaben. Because mites by larval mites. Focus on thedelicate parts of plant sap sucking and spraying control should be focused on the top spraying plant. To increase absorption, can also pay special attention to add silicone additives such as.


use in medicament, do not use a good prescription for continuous use, to timely dressing agent, avoid the practical techniques for controlling pests faster root knot nematode resistant.


you know?


if you have the following symptoms: the crop root protuberance. Rotten.Poor growth. Root litter leaves. Retting; chlorosis; wilt. Twisted dwarf. Slow growth, unfortunately, it is likely to be the root knot nematode infection!



nematode damage is small, but a lot of

root knot nematode damage. Often melon eggplant fruits. Beans and carrots. Carrots. 30 cabbage lettuce. For a variety of vegetables, grapes. Citrus damage can not be underestimated. Through needle aspiration of plant nutrition on plant stems, roots, leaves and fruits. Such great harm, but also spread some fungal and bacterial diseases. More than 80%.


10~20% reduction, or even the naked eye can not see the nematodes look like what is many? The farmers concerned, we first to see the true face of nematode root knot nematode

WXLP.

microscopeS due to root knot nematode living underground and farmers is difficult to grasp the laws of their activities, so make sure the symptoms can help farmers timely prevention and treatment of.

root damage symptoms


cucumber root knot nematode
watermelon root knot nematode
tomato root knot nematode mainly damage crops root

root knot nematode, affected plant performance for root and fibrous roots than the normal plants increased, spherical or irregular shaped tumor formation in young roots, the size varies with the length of time and the number of nematodes, single or on nodulers. Early white, soft texture, after brown or dark brown, rough surface cracking of.

plants in the late damage.

symptoms of cucumber root knot nematode root knot nematode

injured plants in studentsLong in the late symptoms, the whole plant was small, the weak growth vigor, leaves are to turn yellow. Necrosis, some abnormal aging, to whole plant wilting seedling death.

measures for the control of root knot nematode

under natural conditions, the total number of soil nematodes in the soil ecosystem animal 20%, following root knot the 10% nematode worm. That is to say, only the total animal root knot nematode in the soil ecosystem 2%. the proportion of root knot nematode does not constitute a hazard to plants.


however, greenhouse for nematodes provides a more suitable temperature and humidity conditions, also because for many years with the planting of a nematode love vegetables, which means providing delicious food for worms uninterrupted. The worm nervous system is not developed, on the chemical sensitivity is poor, so a lot of nematicides not efficacyAlice?

so on plant root knot nematode control, should follow the rule of dynamic balance of soil ecological environment. Nematode growth and damage law, many measures in many aspects, to achieve the ideal effect of.

agricultural prevention

selection of disease resistant varieties of Tomato Varieties in Cyclamen: such as No. 1. Good red No. 6 Cyclamen and No. 6 nematode resistant varieties, has good resistance to root knot nematode.


rational rotation: serious plots of land with green. Garlic or other non sensitive host crop rotation.
disease free soil seedling diseases often area used insect free soil, application without residues or compost fertilizer, can also be the use of seedling, and pay attention to prevent the spread of.

for strengthening field management: the vegetable growth period to strengthen management, timely watering fertilization, increase of phosphorus. Potassium fertilizer, enhance plant disease resistance? ill plots after harvesting the timely removal of root residue field.

physical control of

high temperature disinfection: root knot nematodes distributed in 3~9 cm topsoil, with the nematode lethal temperature of 55 degrees Celsius in summer, deep plowing soil in high temperature disinfection pest control.

soil electric treatment: the use of root knot nematode on current and voltage tolerance is weak, the methods of soil processing power to control, but need professional personnel to operate the.

biological control biological agent

: containing bacillus. Actinomycetes. Bacteria preparation of Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces lilacinus by bacteria can effectively prevent root knot nematode. But note that slower effect of microbial control of root knot nematode, if to kill and serious greenhouse nematode, nematode mixed.

athomin: AITC is extracted from horseradish and other cruciferous plants in a class of secondary generation.? 20% athomin water emulsion 3~5 L / mu, can effectively prevent the root knot nematode in greenhouse drip irrigation, will lay the ridge of land cover Yan film, first use of water drip for 30 minutes, then make sure the soil is moist, athomin drip irrigation, drip irrigation control time, try to slow down the speed of drip irrigation ensure, agent is evenly penetrated deep soil, drip irrigation after 5~7 days can effectively kill the root knot nematode.

chemical control

using 10% fosthiazate granules in 5% before sowing or planting, Ding Liuke Budweiser granule applicator evenly soil. If found in root knot nematode infestation, can use 20% fosthiazate water emulsion, nine modes 3% or 5% avermectin emulsion in water or irrigation control.




to improve the economic benefits of big canopy vegetable much to learn!


can make a lot of money for the vegetable greenhouses built, however, all the year round, but still can not earn some money, this is a lot of friends engaged in greenhouse vegetable cultivation confusion.



greenhouse vegetable cultivation, to the production efficiency. High economic benefit, not only have excellent technology, but also has strong operability and quite innovative the planting patterns, such as the following about nine of greenhouse vegetable intercropping pattern is worth reference and.


mode: zucchini - tomato - rape

   



1 month squash greenhouse seedling raising in late February to early April, planting, harvesting, soil after harvest in early June, JuneOrder generation, a twin egg going to Shanghai? Old plastic shade rain, leaving 3300 seedlings per mu, the beginning of the October letter shed to be listed in the tomato season, in late November. Therefore, some live rape, before the Spring Festival have harvest. This model yield 1000 kg tomato zucchini. 4000 kg. 900 kg.



mode two: rape bean angle: melon - celery

   



1 month in the greenhouse of cowpea mulch frame pot seedling per pot, sowing seeds 4-5.2 at the end of the month for ditching Qina colonization, ditch from 0.15 meters, 0.1 meters spacing. Bean angle in late March early May. The harvest, harvest in late March after the melon crop in the coldframe or mulch in greenhouse pot seedling.5 month early planting, row spacing of 0.6 meters by 0.3 meters? late June harvest. In celery, in early July to mid September in the nursery, planting greenhouse, mid October buckle film studio, can be extended to the Spring Festival market. Acre can produce 1800 kg 6000 kg celery beans..



mode three: Chinese cabbage, cucumber, celery, summer

   



1 for Chinese cabbage in early spring production, should choose a shorter growth period. The vernalization requirement strictly spring spring. So general. Liangqing Chinese cabbage varieties. In the mid to late 1 the greenhouse seedling raising and transplanting in late 2, the shed, the beginning of April, shizujifei, Dingmiao after Topdressing Urea 10 kg per mu, rosette final heading at the beginning of each mu of topdressing ternary compound fertilizer 15 kg -20 kg.

2 (summer cucumberSelection of Jinyan No. 4 varieties) in late April for nutritional bowl seedling, transplanting in late May, the beginning of July, the cucumber seedling age transplanting 30 days per mu, planting 3000 strains. After transplantation, with 10% rotten human excrement catch a fertilizer, every 5-6 days and then catch a fertilizer, cucumber water diversion channel should be used the furrow irrigation for irrigation, avoid.

3 (American celery celery) of seeds were treated with low temperature in late July, shade avoidance seedling, seedlings 3-4 leaf at seedling, plant spacing of 6 cm square; in mid September, 8-9 leaf seedling transplanting (before planting, shizujifei), with about 6000 plants per mu; in late October December, koupeng, in 30 days before harvest, gibberellin solution spray once 50 mg / L, can promote the growth of stems and leaves, increase the yield. The general mu yield of Chinese cabbage. 3500 kg 3000 kg. Summer cucumber celery 6000 kg. (note the careful use of chemical fertilizersOr pesticides, so as to avoid the loss.) don't


mode four: Eggplant - melon - green cauliflower, lettuce (



    eggplant varieties selected early maturing fast garden eggplant) in late November in greenhouse seedling, seedlings at the end of December, early March planting, row spacing is 0.5 meters by 0.4 meters, in late April harvested in late May. The following winter melon (uprooting string) in mid April by mulch pot seedling in coldframe in late May, planting, row spacing is 0.6 meters by 0.3 meters, harvested in mid July, early August. After uprooting green cauliflower (in green) in early July to early August in the nursery, planting, row rows 0.45 meters by 0.45 meters, at the beginning of October. The next stubble harvest lettuce, in mid October in the greenhouse planting seedlings, shed die button at the same time, set in mid NovemberJapanese? Row spacing is 0.2 meters by 0.15 meters, in early January. The recovery yield of 4000 kg per mu of Greenhouse Eggplant. Melon 4000 kg. Broccoli 700 kg. Lettuce 1000 kg.



mode five: coriander - cucumber - tomato

   



6 shed three years results in the stubble after harvest (not to withdraw in mid June, shed) sowing coriander, mu planting 1.75 kg -2 kg.7 month to 8 months. Late start selling, the harvest period not later than the beginning of September. After the early September planting cucumber, 10 months late planting without grafting, and buckle old shed, 11 months late listing, 12 months late. Therefore, (according to the cucumber and tomato seedling growth and colonization in cucumber) by operating room head 25Square meters (a greenhouse) not planting cucumber, tomato planting in about October 5th, 2 leaves of seedlings of cucumber, harvest time after colonization, beginning in late February listed 5 months late, therefore, this season is the main income season, must be applied with sufficient quality organic fertilizer, strengthen the winter and early spring. The planting pattern of yield management coriander is 250-350 kg. 1000 kg 3500 kg tomato cucumber..



mode six: Rape - squash - chili bean - angle

   



7 sowing in late August to early August rape, the density is not too large, one-time harvest in early September.9 month in mid time of sowing squash, after the emergence of koupeng, October on the middle of colonization, beginning in mid November, 2 months under the listingLate harvest, in early December the planting pepper, 2-3 leaves with nutrition bowl or nursery pot seedlings, the door has pepper mung bean grain hours (about late February) colonization, in mid March the beginning of the listing, 6 months late Qing Peng, pepper before closing before May 20th after nutrition pot seedling pot or a two seeds bean breeding. In May 30th -6 month 5 days of planting, listed in early July, end in early August, the crop is off-season vegetable supply. Zucchini and pepper is the main income of this planting season, the yield of rape mode 2100 kg. Squash 4000 kg 1600 kg. Pepper. Bean angle of 2100 kg.



model seven: cabbage / cucumber - pepper

   



(cabbage Zhonggan No. 11) on December.Shen Yi Qiu Mo and saliva? Seedlings in early January, mid February planting, row spacing of 0.35 meters by 0.33 meters, harvest in early May, the following spring cucumber (Changchun Mici) in mid February in a greenhouse pot seedling mulch, mid March interplanting colonization, harvested in mid May. In late July pepper live in the greenhouse, and used plastic film shading rainproof, double row single flat. Leaving seedling spacing of 0.5 meters by 0.25 meters, in mid October a shed insulation, beginning in late November. The recovery yield of 4000 kg per mu of greenhouse cucumber cabbage. 6000 kg 2500 kg. Green pepper.



mode eight: greenhouse cucumber - mushroom

   



; each winter and spring sowing seedling crop of greenhouse cucumber in September, in late May the following year after harvest,The yield can reach 9000 kg per mu, output value of 20 thousand yuan, 15 thousand yuan (per mu benefit of greenhouse and other costs assessed by 5 years).6-8 months can be cultivated two acres of crop straw mushroom, straw mushroom planting costs 1300-1500 yuan per mu, 1500 kilograms per mu of straw mushroom, output value of 10 thousand yuan, three acres of the total crop benefit more than 20 thousand yuan.



mode nine: squash - lettuce summer - Autumn pepper

   



(can be used as early as the green zucchini squash) in early January to mid February for nutritional bowl seedling, planting, harvesting began in late March and early May Qing Yuan; lettuce (can use special heat-resistant two white) in early April seedling. In late May transplanting, beginning in mid July; pepper (optional Anhui pepper varieties such as No. 1) to? at the beginning of the month in mid September sowing, transplanting, in late October koupeng, new year's day. The Spring Festival market. The general yield squash 2000 kg. Lettuce 2500 kg. Pepper 1500 kg.


from base fertilizer to transplanting season vegetables greenhouse vegetable Festival need to pay attention to the 10 problems of

now North gradually began to get busy, some just have some preparation. Colonization, so here some of the problems appearing in production to give you a brief introduction of the.



type of soil preparation and fertilizer



1. fertilizer to all kinds of

fertilizer to meet the manure (pig manure. Cow dung. Sheep. Chicken manure etc.). Compound fertilizer. Microbial fertilizer of trace elements in fertilizer. (calcium boron zinc. Particularly.The four plaque?, each role, so be sure to implement.


2. manure must be more maturity, although

has been stressed that no matter what the dung, must be fermented, and must turn to the ground, but the actual production there are always people luck, the use of raw manure finally, cause a series of problems such as burning roots, so want to kind of good food should first learn how to fecal manure fermentation. According to the amount of application of the more the better, once farmers tried 1 and a half acres of pepper, with 40 cars (agricultural four wheeled vehicle) was good manure did not appear fertilizer against the phenomenon, and pepper grow particularly good, specific to the actual production, we are unlikely to use so much, but you will have to use an acre of land above 5000kg.



well fermented manure, no bad smell.



raw chicken tomato.


3. do not cause leaf burn excessive use of fertilizer and other

manure can use, but compound fertilizer is good enough, sometimes there are more higher production psychology, generally do compound fertilizer fertilizer balance used (such as 17-17-17) the use of 70 kilograms is enough, excessive use can often lead to soil salinization. The crops in the absence of other trace elements, boron fertilizer and base fertilizer, applying a little enough, with five water sodium borate as an example, an acre of land use 200 grams is enough, if more, but causes of boron poisoning.


4.

soil disinfection problems if successive planting plots, often there are a large number of soil borne diseases, it can make the application in the preparation of carbendazim thiram. PCNB. Other pesticides, then turn to the soil effectively reduce soil bacteria.


5. high ridge cultivation base to promote

high ridge cultivation, the root growth of more space the soil around the roots, better permeability, so the root absorption of water and nutrient ability will be stronger, the yield will be higher, adopting high ridge cultivation can also occur after.



two



6. seedbed seedbed management can effectively reduce the shortage of soil borne diseases, but also can not be watered tooQing XLPE

for their breeding, we must ensure that the seedbed of moisture, water shortage, drought will is not long, but also affect the differentiation of flower buds, the future will seriously affect the yield, while watering too often cause retting root.


7. prevention and control of Damping off and drooping

these two kinds of diseases are often caused by high humidity under field conditions, there is a very good prevention and treatment for cataplexy propamocarb hydrochloride for Rhizoctonia hymexazol / ceftiofur amide has preventive and therapeutic effect of.



tomato cataplexy good (photo 191 agricultural -- wangfang3307



fan)Shanghai can "photograph: aphid? 191 agricultural people sail hometown)


7. - users pay attention to prevention and treatment of whitefly and virus

currently belong to the late summer early autumn season, outside of the greenhouse whitefly often fly to greenhouse vegetable pest and spread diseases, so that in the vegetable seedling (especially solanberry) to pay attention to the prevention and control of whitefly and virus disease, can use Pymetrozine thiamethoxam / + Oligosaccharin / ABOB / ningnanmycin. Before transplanting or spraying water, part of the pharmacy is a part of leaf absorption agent by root absorption, so as to better protect the crops.



before transplanting or spraying irrigation of thiamethoxam diazoxide + Oligosaccharin can prevent whitefly and virus disease

WXL goodBRS


did not prevent treatment, be presented dwarf mosaic symptoms.



three transplanting postprocessing



8. transplanting depth not more than

in order to prevent grafting wilt of Pepper Virus disease infected whitefly bites. Verticillium Wilt of soil borne diseases such as cucumber. Now, peppers and other vegetables eggplant. The grafted seedlings, but if transplanting depth more than the married interface, can marry interface from bacteria to the invasive grafting loss.



cucumber scion, if planting too deep wilt can continue to pour water when it is infected with.


9. colonization controlThe key period of soil borne disease of

after transplanting, we often have to once poured water at this time is a critical period of colonization, and the control of soil borne diseases in pepper, we can use water with planting evilmildew watering, about 15 days can use a good control of wilt disease in tomato you can use Zhongshengmycin / kasugamycin drugs, can effectively reduce the bacterial wilt. Late bacterial canker disease. Bacteria are the pith necrosis and other diseases. With the addition of irrigation water use at planting, microorganisms on soil borne diseases also have a good.


10. effect the attention of film with

recommendations in winter season vegetable planting using white transparent film, so the sun light can penetrate the film makes the soil absorb more heat to improve the soil temperature,Especially in the winter season for this very important role, and the use of black film although there are good herbicidal activity, but the soil unable to absorb more heat so that the temperature is low will affect crop growth of.


on vegetables, some of the early note gave you so much, in the days after the Malatang will give introduce more vegetables, I hope everyone a good vegetable, and if you have good vegetable planting experience, may wish to discuss a discussion of.


vegetable root. Root care tips 8, who say!

. Planting method to reasonable planting and furrow planting.


is the main way of planting ridge planting the application of farmers, but there are both advantages and disadvantages, to apply it skillfully, not only the requirementsDon, if Po? And according to the needs of crops and different planting season and its rationality is very important, is not as simple as some farmers operating inertia. Here is the level of classification to the underground water level, and we briefly talk about how to promote the vegetable planting and raising root root.


for areas of high ground water level, the most afraid of it is therefore only suitable for root retting, ridge planting, and the best is the high ridge cultivation. The specific operation: before planting high ridge 30-35 cm, the seedlings in the ridge top, the aim is to increase the soil layer thickness, to reduce the root respiration, high underground water damage. If the latter level dropped. On the growth of vegetables no longer constitute damage, in order to facilitate watering and fertilizing, weeding method by filling the furrow, ridge height reduced to 20-25 cm.


for the underground water level is low, the above three kinds of planting methods can be used, but the summer cultivation best selection of flat furrow cultivation, its reason: one is conducive to water, will not cause soil drought. Root dry state; two is not caused by the high soil temperature affect root growth of cultivated.


and other times it is suggested to select channel planting or ridge planting, especially a large crop. Because the flat beds planting temperature increase slowly, the soil permeability is poor, is not conducive to rooting, and conducive to the spread of soil borne diseases, and diseases caused by cross infection of.


ridge planting operation method: before planting 20-25 cm high ridge, the crops planted on the ridge side half height is half ridge cultivation.


furrow planting operation method: before planting ground trench, ditch depth of about 30 cm,The crops planted in the ditch on both sides of the slope, the ground distance of 10-15 cm, rather than planting in the ditch (arch type creeping vine watermelon except).


in addition, there is a situation is also not conducive to root growth, that is a lot of farmers in planting often is the first dry watering for convenient operation. But the disadvantage of this approach is the surface of adequate water and fertilizer, root in the superficial layer of the horizontal development, for the future expansion of the limited role of root; in addition, but also because of the surface soil of high efficiency easy to produce excessive exuberance phenomenon. If colonization before pouring through water or in the planting hole in the first watering, can induce root development in depth, deep soil less vegetables before flowering fertilizer absorption less the shoot formation is not easy too Wang Long shortcoming of.



twoTo control water. The seedling root system has


hoe to water-based habits, so water is conducive to the promotion of deep roots, the formation of a strong root group. At the same time, the water control is to avoid Wangchang. Stems and leaves "important measures top-heavy". Therefore, the seedling water after management to take control of water. Depending on soil conditions. Plant growth and weather conditions, water control time is about 15-20 days. In particular: Seedlings with water the best root promoting products, such as the farmers home association of fertilizer fruit Dumbledore rooting agent.


and vegetables "and" water bag "said, especially in the body a long time, how can control water to ensure the plant growth and development of the required water? Hoe hoe. The surface loose delimits fine, can play a role in preserving and promote rooting of.


hoe, will cut off soil capillary, reduce evaporation, water moisture, ensure the soil moisture under the surface. At the same time, hoe can break the surface hardened layer, so as to improve the physical and chemical properties of soil, increase soil permeability, thus conducive to root respiration, contribute to rooting. Therefore, in the early management of vegetables, the hoe to grasp as an important management measures. In general, the seedling to the result, at least to hoe 2 times. Such as heavy soil, weeding times more than.


at present, the use of vegetable seedlings planting, planting 2-3 days to seedling survival the water poured over. The seedling, the surface began airing hoe. This is because the seedlings is small, with a hoe or two tooth hook shallow draw again, second days with a hoe will draw fine loose. The clod pushed hoe hoe should cutIt will be 10 days after the seedling root.


paddling around second hoe hoe. This requirement is deep. The general depth of 5-6 cm, its purpose is to ensure that the surface soil moisture 5-6 cm, cited the roots.2-3 days after a hoe again, enhance the permeability of soil, promote root the rapid growth of.


three. Due to the late film cover the main role of


is to keep the mulching soil temperature. Humidity, reduce air humidity inside. However in the production, I found some farmers friend of plastic film cover is not well timed, many farmers began to mulching in 5-7 days after planting vegetables, especially in the winter cold season, many farmers are in the water will be poured over planting mulch on. This is a bit too.Ao? Why do you say that.


film with insulation. Moisturizing effect, but its role covers premature premature, but not conducive to the growth of vegetables. Mulching premature result: root is no longer deep and stay in the near surface layer, which is easy to cause the surface aggregation and lower capillary root root volume root less the equilibrium state, reflected in the growth of vegetables is "top-heavy shallow foundation". When the weather is warm, you can see a layer of floating flower root in the white surface in the film, but when the temperature is too low, it was near earth surface layer together with the root disappeared. At the same time, the capillary root under film and surface layer also very easy and impact injury, once the injured will appear as leaves turn yellow or water. Nutrient supply situation affect the normal development of plants and fruit.Dang Qian sik? Can promote the deep root, the root will not be much affected by the cold weather comes, the cold resistance ability of.


plant antifreeze for early mulching, the surface layer is easy to form a temperature humidity. The root growth environment, so not conducive to root, not conducive to the cultivation of strong tree mulching. Time: in vegetable planting seedlings, timely weeding 2-3 from root after mulching is advisable, planting vegetables 15 days after mulching was most suitable for.


in low temperature season planting vegetables, to prevent the air temperature and soil temperature is low and the effect of vegetable growth, the first small arch roof insulation, etc. 15 days after mulching, must not be prematurely covering.


in addition, also need to remind you that it isWe feed their good sauce, a hoop sik estate Cang Sheng tomb national Pi? Plants grew fast, natural water demand increase, if not timely water is prone to wilting phenomenon, especially in cloudy days, the situation is even more evident. Therefore, covered with plastic film, is bound to increase the number of times watering and the amount of water. And that with "the two: eight root seedlings after controlling water content to hoe are contrary to the.


in film to cover late four..



said to be suitable for geothermal temperature, first of all to tell you that it is not the temperature of the earth's surface temperature. But 5 cm below the soil surface, and some people in the ground or surface temperature to explain the temperature is not exact, because of its root growth temperatureThere is a gap between the.


ground temperature not only directly affect the development of root system, and the effect of water absorption. The ability of crop root nutrient, and soil physical and chemical properties change. Therefore, temperature adjustment is an important content of greenhouse cultivation, especially for low temperature in winter and spring season greenhouse vegetable production, the temperature is directly influences the root is developed or not directly related to the production of.


plants and vegetables growing along with the production level and planting technology continues to improve, many farmers realize the important role of geothermal, and began to pay attention to adjust the temperature, however, production, I understand that the farmers regulation on soil temperature is also very vague, there are few farmers measure this, also cannot clear what is suitable for.

WXLBR temperatureS

vegetable requirements for more stringent temperature, root temperature range is narrow. Some vegetable stems. Leaves can stand at a low temperature of 8 C, but the root is a temperature above 12 DEG C; stems. Leaves can endure high temperatures above 30 degrees, but if the temperature reaches 28 degrees Celsius, root weight decreased with cucumber as. An example, temperature fell to 12 degrees, the root growth stopped, the temperature fell to 8 degrees below, fibrous roots began yellow leaves withered. But some winter vegetables, shoot by low temperature freezing, but the roots through winter, roots can still be normal on the growth of.


high temperature high temperature requirements of vegetables. High temperature period, should be appropriate to reduce the temperature; low temperature stage, due to the temperature.


of the vegetables on the difference of air temperature and soil temperature requirements. In greenhouse vegetable production, eggplantBud section melons and vegetables and beans crops not? Vegetables root growth in the appropriate temperature is 22-25 degrees centigrade. But according to the determination of production: day 5 cm soil temperature in the deep low temperature than in 5-7 C, 5 cm deep soil temperature at night than high temperature 3-5 degrees Celsius. In winter, especially in the winter season, all day long the temperature reaches the temperature range of the time only 6 hours or so, but this is in sunny weather, that is to say, the day most of the time in ground temperature below 22 degrees Celsius. Just imagine, in such temperature conditions, how can the healthy development of root vegetables? How can improve the yield of


? Therefore, we should develop the root system, we should first guarantee the required temperature. The root growth of production, effective measures to improve the soil temperature are:


1. is raised in temperature. Shed temperature increased, can significantly improve the soil temperature. In winter, canopy temperature should be suitable for the growth of crops to control the upper limit of -3 C plus 2. To improve the shelf temperature measures such as studio studio. Electric heater. Hot water bag, this does not make detailed.


2. use of straw bio reactor. The principle of the heat generated by straw and microbial reactions. Before planting can improve the soil temperature, digging in the planting industry, covered with straw, then sprinkled or sprayed on the microbial community, covering soil after planting. According to the determination of the use of straw bio reactor can improve the temperature of 3-5 DEG.


3. reasonable water and fertilizer. In the winter, watering and fertilizing is an important reason for the change in temperature a sharp, and in the winter watering and fertilizing necessary reasonable watering and fertilizing reasonable.


five.


watering and fertilization of vegetables throughout the whole growth period, but also the important reasons causing root stunting or root injury. Especially in winter, watering and fertilizing due to improper root damage situation is It is often seen..


on the one hand, when the temperature is low, the one-time watering amount is too likely to cause the temperature dropped substantially, due to low temperature root growth caused by adverse occurrence of root damage; at the same time, excessive soil moisture, will reduce the oxygen content in the soil, is not conducive to the normal root respiration and root damage. Disposable fertilization caused by excessive salt ion concentration in soil solution is too large, easy to cause the burning roots.


on the other hand, less water, soil to water and increase the nutrient. The adsorption capacity, which has hindered the absorption of nutrients and moisture, root root in the course of time.On this Dao Huan?.


vegetable production plant senescence. Therefore, water and fertilizer must be reasonable, not just to meet the demand of vegetable growth, but also an important means to protect the root,.


root root to keep watering promoting "four look", that is to look at the day. Look. Look at "geothermal.


seedlings. Four see water" is according to the weather conditions. The status of soil moisture. The watering vegetable growth and soil temperature, avoid improper watering or one-time watering root damage caused by excessive.


fertilization to "four note". The starter. Point fertilizer. Fertilizer and foliar fertilizer at.


, before planting, deep plowing soil again, organic manure compost, root growthTo create a good environment of.


with deep plowing soil organic fertilizer, not only to provide long-term growth of vegetables nutrition elements, but also can improve the soil has good permeability conditions and buffer capacity for vegetable growth. However, organic fertilizer must be fully matured, to avoid the occurrence of the phenomenon of organic fertilizer in soil decomposition heat generation and organic acid burning roots non decomposed. Composting can choose fertility yeast father, the effect is very good.


two note, planting, fertilizing biological fertilizer or fertilizing agent, mulch promoting root.


using biological fertilizer by bacteria. Stimulate rooting, fertilizing can promote root biological agent.


three in planting vegetables when washing fertilizer reasonable.


four note, in the low temperature, should reduce the amount of fertilizer, nitrogen fertilizer or biological humic acid fertilizer, in order to ensure the normal growth and development of root system. In order to meet the demand for vegetables, mineral nutrition, and can be supplemented by foliar spraying. Like in (19-19-19), leaf nutrition required for growth, delay leaf senescence.


six. Leaf maintenance should be consistent


leaves is a "green factory", more than 90% of the yield of vegetable material from the blade. If the blade manufacturing too little nutrition, not only stem and fruit growth retardation, root aging, water fertilizer absorption ability to synthesize endogenous hormones. So it will decrease. If you want to keep it, must protect the leaves, and vegetables should be carried out in the whole growth period of.


so, how to maintenance the blade? Some people think that maintenance blade is very simple, is spraying foliar fertilizer on the line; some people think that don't let the sick leaves is curing leaves. Indeed, these are the maintenance of leaf content, but not comprehensive. I think, to see the blade maintenance: one is a One divides into two. two, support.


1. is raised, is the main method for growth in the late growth or very weak plants taken. In production, is the most common foliar fertilizer, in general, can use foliar amino acid leaf fertilizer with NPK type leaf fertilizer; yellow. If the rigidity is serious, should also cooperate with chitin and cytokinin, delaying leaf senescence, promote the leaf to restore normal.


2. support, namely the protection of leaf function, ensure the leaf area.For all including remonstrance? Pruning priming and pruning of diseases and insects. Picking off leaves, we emphasize the time. That can't pick too hard. That leaves only pick the aging leaves. Leaves. Pest leaves. Here, I also want to remind you that the bottom leaves also should not be hastily removed because the root growth of more nutrient by the lower leaf supply, this is our emphasis on the bottom leaves of fruit under retain some reason.


such as tomatoes, tomato after planting, when the plants grow to about 40 cm. The plants have started hanging lodging phenomenon, combined with the hanging for the first time with the time going to wipe the fork, first erase the first flowers under the first lateral spike (i.e. distance below the recent first spikes of the collateral, because the branch) fast growth, if not timely erase will affect the mainGou Shan Na expands on convex gear? Generally when the branch length to 10 cm. Up to two leaf, the leaf and the fruit produced around the obstacle when erasing is most appropriate. With the continuous growth of the plant, to constantly wipe branch treatment to reduce contention, nutrition, concentration of nutrient supply. When the branch length to 3-5 cm can erase.


leaf picking principle is not to pick pick yellow green, do not pick off, do not pick out pick, once removed sick leaves. The old leaves. Dense leaf. Leaf's purpose is not only to guarantee the required growth of fruit dry matter, and will not cause the word Yu environment is reflected in the production. In the most degree of leaf picking off leaves whole plant 1/3, which retained 10-12 leaves is appropriate. That is to say, the following is in fruit growth period of tomato to be retained at least 2 leaves.


on pest and disease prevention, we emphasize prevention, comprehensive prevention and control of pests and diseases, do not wait until after the single through continuous medication. A large number of drugs to control.


seven. To clear the


root irrigation in vegetable production, irrigation purposes are four: two. Three. Preventing and promoting root water fertilizer four. In particular, the root disease and promote more farmers pay attention to.


for example, in order to prevent the death of pepper trees, many farmers from pepper after planting to fruit sit for multi 3-4 times irrigation, and each time adding rooting agent. The perfusion is carried on sweet pepper planting 2-3 days, every 7 days until peppers sit down as big bowl hours end. Its specific operation is as follows:


for the first time: after planting 3-4Day, sweet pepper seedlings, and often death tree due to Phytophthora root rot and bacterial soft rot disease infecting pepper rhizome, Alec mixed with DT and rooting agent root irrigation with ordinary.


second times: 10-15 days after transplanting, and often death tree due to stalk rot or sclerotia the disease infected with Tolclofos methyl mixed with iprodione and rooting agent root irrigation spray irrigation.


third: Fruit sit, often due to infection of Wilt and root, root xylem discoloration decay death tree, double or chlorobromoisocyanuric acid sodium and rooting agent for irrigation.


some farmers, in order to consolidate the control effect, but also during the irrigation of a.


but in continuous irrigation, often found the following problems: one is deadThe tree is still two; the growth of abnormal, short and small black leaf. Jointing. Why is there such a problem? I think the key lies in the roots of.


its purpose is not clear, so the farmers in pepper and waterlogging, watering when not flood irrigation, and generally uses the small water pouring ground way and root irrigation itself is a way of watering, while root irrigation is still in accordance with the method of small farmers before and after water wash poured the water, resulting in lower concentration, to reach the effect of preventing and curing diseases. Especially in the situation of irrigation soil moisture is larger, more likely to cause root retting, but increase the probability of root or root disease, so the dead trees still. In this regard, I suggest that root irrigation before and after 3-4 days to avoid watering.


second, disease prevention and promoting root mixed together without theOf course, but the continuous use of rooting agent, the rhizosphere of rooting agent concentration was too high, inhibited the synthesis of endogenous auxin in roots, shoots the abnormal growth is not hard to understand. In this regard, I suggest reduced rooting agent use times can be changed 3-4 times for 2 times, the first time in planting seedlings after second, in the fruit sit immediately after. At the same time, can also be used algae (such as Fang Jia rungen) instead of rooting agent, avoid excessive rooting agent "legacy", at the same time, the root has good effect of disease prevention, more effort, root growth and disease resistance of.


. In addition, water fertilizer is also an important objective root irrigation, remind farmers friends not to ignore. Especially in the winter cold season, it is an important measure to keep mulch. How to solve the root vegetables water and fertilizer demand situation and farmers worry about contradiction retting root dead trees I think it?Irrigation, fertilizer is a good choice, available Fangrun. Le. Champromise full of water soluble fertilizer available according to the concentration of 500 times liquid of root irrigation, especially in cloudy, and vegetables and water and fertilizer requirement of.


eight. To raise


mulch raises the root root before eight seven, emphasis on the improvement of the environment of root growth and promote rooting measures, also with a simple introduction about the prevention of root diseases. The eight measures, mainly talk about how to this topic is how to protect the mulch, root, reduce and reduce the injury or disease of.


root soil environment on the growth in soil easy, restricted by soil conditions and the performance of the root dysplasia. Root. Root diseases, especially the old shed. Thus, mulchShould first start from.


1. soil disinfection to improve soil conditions, reduce or eliminate the number of pathogenic bacteria in soil; when the fertilizing agent protecting root colonization with the pathogen infection, reduce the probability of.


root soil disinfection is most commonly used measures are: high temperature disinfection, or high temperature disinfection and fumigation with methyl bromide. Lime nitrogen to make full use of high temperature. Sterilization and methyl bromide. The characteristics of melamine sterilization and disinsection to purify the soil. However, it is a reminder: the above treatment measures of soil, fertilizer Shisheng to increase in soil, increase the number of beneficial bacteria in the soil, so as to effectively resist the invasion of bacteria. Farmers can choose home grown organic fertilizer. 1-3 shed, method only by high temperature disinfection of soil disinfection; the cultivation of more than 3 years of greenhouse, high temperaturePo Wan Zi Liao brigade CD Li Du Mu Min Department of people's pepper connected Liao?


2. deep plowing soil, breaking plow, avoid water and soil manure retting root. Root root burn problems in the production of.


, now the farmers are increasingly dependent on machinery, land use land rotary cultivator. Only 13-15 cm deep plowing after fertilizer are more concentrated in the soil, caused by burning and seedling root. More serious is that the successive use of rotary cultivator, easy to form 13-15 cm under the plough layer, is not conducive to the deep root, easy to cause the vegetables premature, but also easy to water and manure of root injury. In recent years, the growth of vegetables are so frequent mid leaves caused, especially in low temperature season especially significant. Therefore, I think in the use of rotary tiller fertilizer willBreak the homogeneous mixing of shallow soil, but also with a deep plowing artificial shovel as well, breaking plow, the depth of 25-30 cm.


3. can alleviate salt injury, solve the soil solution concentration caused by high root biomass. The problem of poor rooting.


salt is not a short duration of time formation, and salt solution damage can not be done overnight. The soil surface has obvious "red moss. Frost. Frost" phenomenon of farmers, establish long-term plans for suggestions, from every little bit, reasonable fertilization. Nitrogen fertilizer, straw fertilizer and biological fertilizer; fertilizer, reduce chemical fertilizer, water soluble fertilizer can be available (such as joy in etc.) instead of common compound fertilizer, nitrogen fertilizer (such as biological bacteria bacteria EM.


4 etc.). the scientific use of fertilizer, fertilizer and water is caused by excessive one-time root.


of course, also must start from the root itself mulch, especially before planting, in order to avoid the sick should be buried root colonization, dipping the root in mulch before planting, Fang Jia 500 times liquid available rungen in root crops.


calcium, who is arch-criminal?


is like calcium in vegetable crops, planted when people tend to focus on nitrogen and phosphorus and potassium fertilizer, and most did not pay attention to the application of calcium fertilizer. With the emergence of a large number of greenhouse vegetables, more easily lead to the importance of calcium.


1- calcium -



test according to the greenhouse soil, vegetable production in greenhouse, reasonable calcium fertilizer, generally can increase10%~20%. vegetable calcium fertilizer, can increase the calcium content in the plant, long time to maintain the appearance of bright color, appearance quality and internal quality are improved significantly. In addition, calcium deficiency is the result of   causes many vegetables sick and rotten important causes of.



2- calcium; calcium content of effective -



in soil is low, can not meet the vegetable of calcium the salt content in the soil; high, inhibited the absorption of water and calcium, especially in acidic red soil and yellow soil, because of strong acidity, affect the absorption of calcium; soil solution concentration is too high, or the existence of a large number of ammonium nitrogen will hinder the absorption of calcium; soil shallow. Especially the sandy soil water and fertilizer retention capacity, loss of calcium; in a lot of nitrogen fertilizer.A squid excessive nitrogenous? Effective reduction of soil calcium. At the same time, calcium moves slowly, so in the plant, vegetable nutrition calcium, calcium deficiency has become the symptoms of vegetables -



a prominent problem in the cultivation of vegetables.



3- calcium, generally young and young organization. The fruit is easy to calcium deficiency symptoms. Performance for the new plant parts such as bud. Hair growth, atrophy and death; new leaves could not be normal adhesion, expansion, expansion of new leaves often burnt edge, incomplete; plant small soft fruit top internode; prone to depression, dark brown necrosis; severe calcium deficiency growth point necrosis.


4- vegetable crops application of calcium fertilizer -



is a reasonable choice to have different properties of different varieties of.

calcium calcium fertilizer in greenhouse, soil pH value is 6.5~7.5, should use alkaline substance or neutral fertilizer, such as lime. Calcium nitrate, and less acidic or physiological acidic substances, such as lime nitrogen fertilizer containing calcium nutrient, ordinary fertilizer such as superphosphate. Calcium phosphate. Triple superphosphate is also an important source of calcium. Bone ash. Both contain a certain amount of calcium, but also can not ignore the calcium source, can be chosen according to the situation that.


recommended micronutrients, water soluble fertilizer containing calcium (calcium not less than 120g/L, less than 20g/L, magnesium containing not less than 50g/L, zinc containing boron containing not less than 3 g/L), while calcium supplement trace elements, pay attention to choose the value of EC (the concentration of salt? low fertilizer on crop safety.


two is the period of the fertilizer.

on vegetable growth into the fast growing period, soil calcium nutrition began to decrease, while in the leaves began to decrease when calcium, calcium fertilizer is the best period. Therefore, in order to prevent the production of calcium vegetable growth, can be used as base fertilizer after years of planting. In general, Mushi 2000~3000 kg decomposed organic fertilizer, adding superphosphate 30~45 kg.


three.

fertilization method of acid heavy field or greenhouse vegetables, the sets of base fertilizer, 100 kg per mu is the application of plant ash or lime 50 kg, can adjust the pH of the soil. The effect of specific approach to the organic fertilizer and lime or plant ash and evenly, wereEvenly applied to the ground surface, plowing into the ground on.


in the growth stage of vegetables, especially in the vigorous growth period, the dressing method, calcium supplement nutrition, general per mu lime 40~60 kg, sandy soil lime dosage appropriate to reduce the.


can not only calcium supplement, but also conducive to neutralization of soil acid, increase pH, improve soil aggregate structure, and can also be 80 kg or 50 kg of lime ash, opened one end of the film, furrow 10 cm deep, the fertilizer topdressing in the ditch water, the water infiltration after covered with soil or roots and the method of.


film mulching. To enhance the capacity of holding water and fertilizer, soil water content is relatively stable, reduce the loss of calcium. It can also be combined with disease prevention by foliar sprayingTom Hank about real widows trafficking scale? Dressing concentrations generally should be 0.3%~0.5%. In general 0.1%~0.2% 1% spraying calcium nitrate or calcium superphosphate, every 15 days or so of a jet, even spray 3~4 times better.




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